Congress has passed federal trade legislation. Seyfarth Shaw’s dedicated Trade Secrets group has created a resource which summarizes the legislation, outlines the arguments in favor of and against the legislation, and provides additional resources for our readers’ convenience. This page will be continuously updated as we monitor and keep you apprised of the most recent developments, debate, and news regarding the legislation.

Below we provide an overview of trade secret law and the federal legislation, the arguments on both sides of the debate, and our most current resource links.

How Are Trade Secrets Currently Protected?

Trade secrets are legally protectable information and can include a formula, pattern, compilation, program, device, method, technique or process. To meet the most common definition of a trade secret, a trade secret has three parts: (1) information; (2) reasonable measures taken to protect the information; and (3) which derives independent economic value from not being generally known. Examples of trade secrets include, plans, designs, negative information, computer software, customer lists, non-public financial information, cost and pricing information, manufacturing information, confidential information about business opportunities, and certain personnel information.

Trade secrets are generally protected by state law under a particular state’s adoption of the Uniform Trade Secrets Act (UTSA). The UTSA, published by the Uniform Law Commission (ULC) in 1979 and amended in 1985, was an act promulgated in an effort to provide a unified legal framework to protect trade secrets.

Texas recently became the 48th state to enact some version of the UTSA. New York and Massachusetts are the remaining states not to have enacted the UTSA. Trade secrets are protected in those jurisdictions under the common law.

Trade secrets are also protected under federal criminal laws, i.e. the Economic Espionage Act of 1996, as well as state criminal laws.

Unlike patent, trademark, or copyright protection, there is no set time period for trade secret protection. A trade secret is protected as long as it is kept secret. However, once a trade secret is lost, it is lost forever. As we have seen in a post-Wikileaks and social media world, once confidential information is disclosed, it can be instantly distributed online for hundreds of millions to see, access, and download, and thereby lose its trade secret status.

What Is The Proposed Legislation?

On July 29, 2015, with bipartisan support, Congressional leaders in both the House and Senate, including Senators Orrin Hatch (R-UT), Christopher Coons (D-DE) and Representative Doug Collins (R-GA), introduced bills to create a federal private right of action for the misappropriation of trade secrets.  The identical bills, HR 3326 and S. 1890, were referred to their respective judiciary committee. The proposed legislation, titled the “Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2015” (“DTSA”), followed an unsuccessful attempt the previous year to pass the “Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2014.”

The proposed legislation would authorize a private civil action in federal court for the misappropriation of a trade secret that is related to a product or service used in, or intended for use in, interstate or foreign commerce.  The proposed legislation features amendments from the 2014 bill and seeks to do the following: 1) create a uniform standard for trade secret misappropriation by expanding the Economic Espionage Act; 2) provide parties pathways to injunctive relief and monetary damages to preserve evidence, prevent disclosure, and account for economic harm to companies; and 3) create remedies for trade secret misappropriation similar to those in place for other forms of intellectual property.

The DTSA has some similarities with the Uniform Trade Secrets Act. The DTSA defines “misappropriation” consistently with the DTSA, and provides for similar remedies, including injunctive relief, compensatory damages, and exemplary damages and the recovery of attorneys’ fees in the event of willful or malicious misappropriation.

The DTSA, however, differs from the UTSA in several important aspects.  Most notably, it opens the federal courts to plaintiffs for trade secrets cases.  The DTSA also allows for an ex parte seizure order.  A plaintiff fearful of the propagation or dissemination  of its trade secrets would be able to take proactive steps to have the government seize its trade secrets prior to giving any notice of the lawsuit to the defendant.  The proposed seizure protection goes well beyond what a court is typically willing to order under existing state law.  Next, the DTSA’s statute of limitations period is five years compared to just three under the UTSA.  Additionally,  the DTSA allows for the recovery of treble exemplary damages versus double under the UTSA.  Finally, the DTSA contains no language preempting other causes of action that arise under the same common nucleus of facts, unlike the UTSA.

In January 2016, Senators Hatch and Coons presented two “groups” of amendments to the DTSA, taking into consideration suggestions from other members of the Judiciary Committee. The Committee unanimously adopted both groups of amendments, and held a voice vote in favor of the passage of the now amended Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2016 (“DTSA”). The first group of amendments: (1) made it so only a trade secret owner could bring a civil action for misappropriation; (2) changed the statute of limitations from five years to three years; (3) re-defined “trade secret” and “improper means;” (4) clarified that ex parte seizures may only be instituted in “extraordinary circumstances” and placed further limitations on the seizures; (5) clarified the appropriate scope of injunctions relating to employment to ensure that court orders are not contrary to applicable state laws; and (6) added language expressing Congress’ notion of the importance of balancing the interests of all parties when issuing an ex parte seizure, and “instructing the Federal Judicial Center to develop best practices for the execution of seizures and the storage of seized information.”

The second group of amendments sought to provide protection to “whistleblowers who disclose trade secrets to law enforcement in confidence for the purpose of reporting or investigating a suspected violation of law,” and the “confidential disclosure of a trade secret in a lawsuit, including an anti-retaliation proceeding.”

On April 4, 2016, the U.S. Senate passed the Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2016. Soon after, on April 20, 2016, the House Committee approved S. 1890 by voice vote.  On April 27, 2016,  the DTSA was approved by the House. The DTSA is considered uncontroversial and has enjoyed much bipartisan, bicameral support.  President Obama has voiced his support of the DTSA, which indicates that he will sign it.

Do We Need Federal Trade Secrets Legislation?

Many business, professional, political, and academic leaders have called for the creation of federal civil cause of action for trade secret misappropriation. There has been some vocal opposition to the legislation. Legislation to create a civil cause of action for trade secret misappropriation in federal court has failed in at least three previous attempts.

Recent scholarly articles in the Gonzaga Law Review and Fordham Law Review have suggested that federal courts may be more equipped to devote resources to trade secret claims so as to establish a uniform body of case law, like other intellectual property.  See A Statistical Analysis of Trade Secret Litigation in State Courts, 46 Gonzaga Law Review 57 (February 2011); Four Reasons to Enact a Federal Trade Secrets Act, 19 Fordham Intellectual Property, Media & Entertainment Law Journal 769 (April 2009).

Additionally, published reports indicate that there is a growing rise in trade secret theft from foreign hackers, nation states, and rogue employees interested in obtaining U.S. businesses’ trade secrets.  Foreign economic collection and industrial espionage against the United States represent significant and growing threats to the nation’s prosperity and security.  In response, the Obama Administration released a 150-page report that unveiled a government-wide strategy designed to reduce trade secret theft by hackers, employees, and companies.  In its published strategy plan, the Obama Administration recognized the accelerating pace of economic espionage and trade secret theft against U.S. corporations and suggested looking into creating additional legislative protections.

Additionally, security company Mandiant published a report finding that the Chinese government is sponsoring cyber-espionage to attack top U.S. companies.  Moreover, released a whitepaper that highlighted how far-reaching and deeply challenging trade secret theft is for companies operating on a global scale.  Further, a report commissioned by IT security company Symantec revealed that half of the survey respondents, employees from various countries, including the United States, revealed that they have taken their former employer’s trade secret information, and 40 percent say they will use it in their new jobs. Lastly, estimates of trade secret theft range from one to three percent of the Gross Domestic Product of the United States and other advanced industrial economies, according to a report by PwC US and

Indeed, the recent expansion of penalties and expanded definition of trade secrets under the EEA reflects a recognition by the government that the EEA is a valuable tool to protect secret, valuable commercial information from theft and that Congress can work in a bi-partisan effort to address such theft.

The significant harm caused by economic espionage for the benefit of foreign actors is illustrated by a recent case where a project engineer for the Ford Motor Company copied 4,000 Ford Motor Company documents onto an external hard drive and delivered them to a Ford competitor in China.  The documents contained trade secret design specifications for engines and electric power supply systems estimated to be worth between $50 million and $100 million.  Similarly, a former employee of a North American automotive company and the employee’s spouse were found guilty of stealing trade secrets related to hybrid vehicle technology worth $40 million.  The couple intended to sell the information to a Chinese competitor.

Another case involved the sentencing of a former DuPont employee who allegedly conspired with a South Korean company, Kolon Industries, to misappropriate trade secrets involving Kevlar, a well-known synthetic fiber product produced and sold by DuPont. Kolon Industries allegedly put a plan in place to recruit former DuPont employees so Kolon could create a product to compete with Kevlar without putting the time, effort, and expenditures into developing its own product.  The former employee, even though he signed a non-disclosure agreement while at DuPont, allegedly retained DuPont documents upon his departure and turned them over to Kolon when they recruited him.  Upon finding out about this scheme, the FBI investigated Kolon, and five of its executives were indicted for committing trade secret theft.  Kolon plead guilty and was sentenced to pay $85 million in penalties and $275 million in restitution.

There is also significant harm caused by economic espionage committed by insiders. An employee of a large U.S. futures exchange company pleaded guilty to stealing more than 10,000 files containing source code for a proprietary electronic trading platform. Prosecutors estimated the value of these trade secrets between $50 and $100 million. The employee said he and two business partners had planned to use this source code to develop their own company.

The FBI has recently launched a nationwide awareness campaign and released a short film based upon an actual case,  The Company Man: Protecting America’s Secrets, aimed at educating anyone with a trade secret about the threat and how they can help mitigate it.  The film illustrates how one U.S. company was targeted by foreign actors and how that company worked with the FBI to address the problem.

From the perspective of those in favor the legislation, the United States currently has an un-harmonized patchwork of trade secret protection laws that are ill-equipped to provide an effective civil remedy for companies whose trade secrets are stolen.  Not all states have adopted the Uniform Trade Secrets Act, and many differ in the interpretation and implementation of certain trade secret laws.   For instance, states have differences in their definition of a trade secret (e.g. Idaho expressly includes computer programs) and what is required to maintain a claim for trade secret misappropriation, including what are reasonable secrecy measures  Some states have found a novelty requirement for information to be considered a trade secret and some are more protective of customer lists. There are also several states that have different statute of limitations for trade secret claims and there are also significant differences on the availability of a royalty injunction.  Many states also did not pass Section 8 of the UTSA which provides, “[t]his [Act] shall be applied and construed to effectuate its general purpose to make uniform the law with respect to the subject of this [Act] among states enacting it.” Moreover, victims of trade secret theft can face lengthy and costly procedural obstacles in obtaining evidence when the misappropriators flee to other states or countries or transfer the evidence to other states or countries.  Obtaining necessary service of process and discovery can be extremely difficult or impossible under the current system.

Proponents and Sponsors of the Bills

Various companies and business constituents have come out in favor of the bill. Announcement of the proposed legislation on July 29, 2015 was joined by a letter of support on behalf of the Association of Global Automakers, Inc., Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), The Boeing Company, Boston Scientific, BSA | The Software Alliance (BSA), Caterpillar Inc., Corning Incorporated, Eli Lilly and Company, General Electric, Honda, IBM, Illinois Tool Works Inc., Intel, International Fragrance Association, North America, Johnson & Johnson, Medtronic, Micron, National Alliance for Jobs and Innovation (NAJI), National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), NIKE, The Procter & Gamble Company, Siemens Corporation, Software & Information Industry Association (SIIA), U.S. Chamber of Commerce, United Technologies Corporation and 3M.  The joint letter expressed the need for a private right of action to supplement the existing Economic Espionage Act of 1996 (“EEA”), which only provides for criminal sanctions in the event of trade secret misappropriation.

In 2014, two similar trade secret bills were introduced and received support from various constituents.

The Heritage Foundation wrote an article in support of a private right of action.  Congresswoman Zoe Lofgren, D-Cal., previously proposed creating a civil cause of action in federal court with the PRATSA bill. Also, a diverse set of companies and organizations have previously came in favor of legislation or the concept of a federal civil cause of action, including Adobe, Boeing, Microsoft, IBM, Honda, DuPont, Eli Lilly, Broadcom, Caterpillar, NIKE, Qualcomm, General Electric, Michelin, 3M, United Technologies Corporation, National Association of Manufacturers, and the National Chamber of Commerce.

Proponents of the bills have cited the advantages of a federal cause of action, as among other things, a unified and harmonized body of law that addresses discrepancies under the existing law and provides companies a uniform standard for protecting its proprietary information.  Federal legislation will treat trade secrets on the same level as other IP and establish them as a national priority, address national security concerns, and create a demonstrative effect on major foreign jurisdictions.  The bill may also provide a complimentary measure to combat trade secret misappropriation by private industry in light of strained government resources.  A federal cause action may also provide service of process advantages, the ease of conducting nationwide discovery, and additional remedies to aid victims, such as seizure.

Additionally, the former head of the Patent Office, David Kappos came out in favor of the 2014 house bill on behalf of the Partnership of American Innovation stating, “Trade secrets are an increasingly important form of intellectual property, yet they are the only form of IP rights for which the protection of a federal private right of action is not available. The Trade Secrets Protection Act will address this void, and the PAI supports its swift enactment.”

Erik Telford of the Franklin Center for Government and Public Integrity added, “[t]he weakness of these laws is that there is no overarching legal framework at the federal level to account for both the sophistication and international nature of new threats.  As Mr. Kappos noted, even the government is bound by finite resources in its efforts to protect companies, evidenced by the fact that under the Economic Espionage Act, the Department of Justice initiated only 25 cases of trade secret theft last year.”

Opposition To The Bills

In August 2014, a group of 31 professors from throughout the United States who teach and write about intellectual property law, trade secret law, invocation and/or information  submitted an Opposition Letter to the 2014 bills. The professors cited five primary reasons for their opposition: (1) effective and uniform state law already exists; (2) the proposed Acts will damage trade secret law and jurisprudence by weakening uniformity while simultaneously creating parallel, redundant, and/or damaging law; (3) the Acts are imbalanced and could be used for anti-competitive purposes; (4) the Acts increase the risk of accidental disclosure of trade secrets; and (5) the Acts have potential ancillary negative impacts on access to information, collaboration among businesses, and mobility of labor.  Following the letter, an Washington and Lee University School of Law professor Christopher Seaman critiqued the federalization of trade secrets law.

Shortly after the introduction of the bills in July 2015, law  professors, David Levine and Sharon Sandeen, wrote a new letter to Congress setting forth seven differences between the 2014 bills and the 2015 bill while still contesting the arguments of the bill’s supporters.  The seven differences include: 1) the wrong is defined differently; 2) the ex parte civil seizure still remains but with apparently more stringent standards; 3) new encryption language has been added; 4) new concerns about employee mobility; 5) trade secrets are described as not intellectual property; 6) reporting of trade secret theft abroad is unclear as to whether it means “theft” or “misappropriation;” and 7) “Sense of Congress” provision, which presumes trade secret theft is always “harmful.”  They believe that the legislation does not ameliorate the problems it seeks to fix.

Current Status Of The Legislation

HR 3326 and S. 1890 were introduced into committee on July 29, 2015. The Senate Judiciary Committee held a hearing on the Senate bill on December 2, 2015. On January 28, 2016, the Senate Judiciary Committee held a voice vote in favor of the passage of the amended Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2016. On April 4, 2016, the U.S. Senate passed the DTSA with a unanimous vote of 87-0.

On April 20, 2016, the House Committee approved S. 1890 by voice vote.  On April 27, 2016, the DTSA was approved by the House of Representatives.  The DTSA is considered uncontroversial and has enjoyed much bipartisan, bicameral support.

The Obama Administration has indicated that it supports the Act. In a statement issued on April 4, 2016, the Executive Office of the President stated that it “strongly supports” the legislation and its “more uniform, reliable, and predictable way to protect … valuable trade secrets.” We expect the President to sign the DTSA into law shortly.

Additional News and Resources

Our Recent Blog Articles:

U.S. Senate Passes Bill Creating A Civil Cause of Action in Federal Court for Trade Secret Misappropriation – April 5, 2016

Senate Judiciary Committee Issues Report in Support of Defend Trade Secrets Act – March 22, 2016

Senate Judiciary Committee Votes in Favor of Passage of an Amended Defend Trade Secrets Act – Jan. 28, 2016

Update on the Senate Judiciary Committee’s Hearing on the Protection of Trade Secrets – Dec. 2, 2015

U.S. Senate To Hold Hearing On Impact of Trade Secret Theft – Dec. 1, 2015

Proposed US and EU Trade Secrets Laws Progress but Unlikely to be Enacted This Year— Oct. 30, 2015

Push for Federal Trade Secret Legislation Gaining Momentum — Aug. 13, 2014

Webinar Recap! Trade Secret and Non-Compete Legislative Update — June 23, 2014

Big Changes May Be Ahead for the Nation’s Trade Secret Laws — May 13, 2014

U.S. Senators Propose Legislation To Strengthen Federal Criminal Trade Secret Laws— Aug. 13, 2013

Representative Zoe Lofgren Introduces Bill to Create Private Civil Claim for Trade Secrets Theft Under the Economic Espionage Act — June 26, 2013

Obama Administration’s Request for Public Comment on Trade Secrets Law Underscores Importance for Companies to Protect Their Proprietary Assets Now — April 16, 2013

New Federal Trade Secrets Legislation Proposed — July 19, 2012

Other Recent News and Informative Articles:

Trade Secrets Act Would Let Silicon Valley Tech Firms Sue in Federal Court Over Intellectual Property Rights – CBS SF Bay Area, May 9, 2016

Defend Trade Secrets Act – Coming to Federal Court Near You – The National Law Review, May 9, 2016

Defend Trade Secrets Act: Notice Requirement – The National Law Review, May 6, 2016

The New ‘Defend Trade Secrets Act’ is the Biggest IP Development in Years – Forbes, Apr. 28, 2016

Implementing and Interpreting the Defend Trade Secrets Act –, Apr. 27, 2016

House Clears Trade Secrets Bill for Obama’s Signature – The Hill, Apr. 27, 2016

House Overwhelmingly Passes Defend Trade Secrets Act, Bill Now Moves to White House – IPWatchdog, Apr. 27, 2016

American Business Likely to Benefit from Greater Protection for Trade Secrets – IPWatchdog, April 14, 2016

Appropriately Crafted Federal Trade Secrets Legislation Will Promote Competition and Economic Welfare – IPWatchdog, Apr. 13, 2016

Lawyers Read to Reap Work From Federal Trade Secrets Act – The Recorder, Apr. 8, 2016

Trade Secrets Bill Passes Senate –, Apr.5, 2016

Defend Trade Secrets Act Moving Forward –, Apr. 5, 2016

We Need To Safeguard The Secrets of America’s Innovation Economy – Forbes, Apr. 4, 2016

Obama Administration Strongly Supports Defend Trade Secrets Act – IPWatchdog, Apr. 4, 2016

Stealing America’s Trade Secrets – The Washington Times, LLC, Mar. 17, 2016

US Manufacturers to Congress: Keep Us Competitive, Pass Trade Secrets Legislation – The Hill, Mar. 10, 2016

Pass the Defend Trade Secrets Act – The Hill, Jan. 27, 2016

The Anti-Cyberespionage Bill That Isn’t, Or Never Was? – The Center for Internet and Society, Jan. 23, 2016

Updating the Defend Trade Secrets Act? – Freedom to Tinker, Jan. 23, 2016

Protecting Our Trade Secrets is Vital to Economic Growth – The Hill, Jan. 21, 2016

Why we Need a Seizure Remedy in the Defend Trade Secrets Act –, Jan. 18, 2016

US Senate Vote Awaited for Trade Secrets Seizure Legislation as Experts Chine In (again) – The IPKate, Jan. 17, 2016

The Inadequacy of Trade Secret Law and Why Congress Should Pass the DTSA – IPWatchdog, Dec. 22, 2015

Why I Support the Defend Trade Secrets Act – Legal Developments in Non-Competition Agreements Blog, Dec. 29, 2015

Potential Legal Implications of the Defend Trade Secrets Act – (subscription), Dec. 8, 2015

A Misguided Attempt to “Defend Trade Secrets” – The Washington Post, Dec. 2, 2015

IPO Sends Letter to Senate Leaders in Support of Defend Trade Secrets Act – JD Supra, Dec. 2, 2015

Do We Need a New Judicial Fast Lane to Combat Trade Secret Theft? – Forbes, Dec. 1, 2015

Time to Modernize and Strengthen Trade Secret Law – Corporate Counsel, Dec. 1, 2015

Senate Judiciary Panel to Probe Trade Secret Theft – The Hill, Nov. 24, 2015

New Professors’ Letter Opposing The Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2015 – WordPress, Nov. 17, 2015

Lawmakers push to protect trade secrets from Chinese hackers – The Hill, Oct. 9, 2015

Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2015 May Open Door To Employers Wishing To Pursue Trade Secret Claims In Federal Court – Above the Law, Aug. 13, 2015

The Defend Trade Secrets Act Has Returned – Freedom to Tinker, Aug. 3, 2015

Lawmakers Take Another Stab At Federal Trade Secrets Law – Law360, July 30, 2015

Senate, House Leaders Introduce Bipartisan, Bicameral Bill to Protect Trade Secrets – U.S. Senator Orrin Hatch, Press Releases, July 29, 2015

A Bibliography About Federal Trade Secret Law Reform (Guest Blog Post) – Technology & Marketing Law Blog, Apr. 2, 2015

Many Hope Trade Secrets Legislation Moves in Lame-Duck Session; Critics, Skeptical of Bills’ Effectiveness, Ask: “Why Here, Why Now?” – Reproduced with permission from BNA’s Patent, Trademark & Copyright Journal, 89 PTCJ 115 (Nov. 14, 2014). Copyright 2014 by The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. (800-372-1033) <>

IP Bills Have Momentum in New Congress – Law360, Nov. 5, 2014

Hatch, Coons Applaud House Judiciary Committee Passage of Trade Secrets Legislation – Press Release, Sept. 17, 2014

Judiciary Committee Approves Trade Secrets Legislation – Press Release, Sept. 17, 2014

House Panel OKs Trade Secret Bill, Disputed Seizure Rules – Law360, Sept. 17, 2014

Congress Is Considering A New Federal Trade Secret Law. Why? — Forbes, Sept. 17, 2014

Profs Ask Congress to Reject Trade Secret Lawsuit Bills — Corporate Counsel, Sept. 12, 2014

U.S. Trade Secrets Law, Intellectual Property — Bloomberg, Sept. 9, 2014

Trade secrets: even more exposed! — IP Kat, Sept. 8, 2014

Protecting Trade Secrets to Stimulate Knowledge Flows — Ideas Lab, Sept. 4, 2014

US trade secret law: Time for an upgrade — Tech Policy Daily, Sept. 3, 2014

Ready to Nationalize Trade Secret Law? — Patently-O, Aug. 27, 2014

Law Professors Oppose Federal Trade Secrets Acts, Ignore Their Benefits — Protecting Trade Secrets, Aug. 26, 2014

Why Protecting Our Trade Secrets Is Essential To Saving the Economy — Business Insider, Aug. 18, 2014

Congressman Holding Introduces Bipartisan “Trade Secrets Protection Act of 2014” — Press Release, July 29, 2014

BSA Applauds Introduction of Trade Secrets Legislation in the House — The Software Alliance, July 28, 2014

Proposed U.S. and EU trade secret laws could create more tools to protect your valuable information — InsideCounsel, July 22, 2014

Business leaders endorse Senator Coons’ bipartisan bill to strengthen protection of trade secrets — Press Release, May 14, 2014

Senator Coons’ bipartisan intellectual property legislation to be focus of Tuesday hearing – Press Release, May 12, 2014

Request for Public Comments on “Trade Secret Theft Strategy Legislative Review” — IP Enforcement Coordinator Hon. Victoria Espinel, April 22, 2013 and PwC: Economic Impact of Trade Secret Theft

Chamber of Commerce: The Case for Enhanced Protection of Trade Secrets in the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement