Because the laws of various states regarding non-compete clauses differ significantly, cases involving these provisions often entail fights at the outset as to the proper venue. The Eastern District of Pennsylvania recently faced just such an issue in CertainTeed Corp. v. Nichiha USA, Inc., Civil Case No. 09-CV-3932-LS, 2009 WL 3540796 (E.D. Pa. Oct. 29, 2009). In that matter, CertainTeed contested with Bruno Demey, its former Director of Manufacturing and Technology, and Nichiha, Demey’s new employer, over whether litigation between the parties should go forward in Pennsylvania or Georgia.
CertainTeed’s headquarters are located in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, and it has manufacturing plants in Indiana, North Carolina, and Oregon. Its confidential information, trade secrets, and computer servers are located in Valley Forge. CertainTeed hired Demey in March 2003. Demey executed a non-compete agreement with CertainTeed in September 2004. During his employment with CertainTeed, Demey resided in South Carolina and made numerous trips to Valley Forge for meetings.
The timeline of events relevant to the litigation are as follows:
1. Demey resigned from CertainTeed on August 20, 2009.
2. Demey filed a complaint and motion for a preliminary injunction in the Superior Court of Fulton County, Georgia on August 24, 2009. Demey stated that he intended to move to Georgia to work for Nichiha and therefore sought injunctive relief against CertainTeed setting forth: (a) that the non-compete and non-disclosure terms of the non-compete agreement are unenforceable under Georgia law; and (b) that CertainTeed could not take action to enforce the covenants against Demey or otherwise preclude Demey from working for Nichiha.
3. On August 26, 2009, CertainTeed removed the state court action to the United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia.
4. CertainTeed filed an action against Demey and Nichiha in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania on August 28, 2009. CertainTeed alleged a breach of contract claim and breach of fiduciary duty claim against Demey, a tortious interference with contractual relations claim and an unfair competition claim against Nichiha, and violations of the Pennsylvania, South Carolina, North Carolina, Indiana, and Oregon trade secrets acts, as well as a civil conspiracy claim, against Demey and Nichiha.
5. On August 31, 2009, CertainTeed requested a preliminary injunction and temporary restraining order.
6. On September 2, 2009, the Georgia district court granted Demey’s motion for a temporary restraining order and enjoined CertainTeed from enforcing the non-competition covenant in Georgia. On that same date, Nichiha filed a motion to dismiss, transfer or stay the Pennsylvania action.
7. On September 3, 2009, CertainTeed filed a first amended complaint in the Pennsylvania action, removing any claim to enforce the non-compete covenant in Georgia.
The Pennsylvania district court ultimately decided to deny Nichiha’s motion to dismiss, stay, or transfer and therefore let CertainTeed proceed with its claims in Pennsylvania. In its order, the Pennsylvania court addressed three issues. First, it rejected Nichiha’s claim that the first-filed rule required that the matter progress exclusively in Georgia. The court found that the Pennsylvania action was not “truly duplicative” of the Georgia action because the former included a number of claims that were not present in the latter. The court rejected Nichiha’s assertion that the claims asserted by CertainTeed were mandatory counterclaims in the Georgia action, instead finding that the trade secret claims were not so related to the non-compete claims that separate trials would lead to “substantial duplication of efforts.”
The district court next addressed the issue of venue. It decided that a substantial portion of the events at issue took place in Pennsylvania. Specifically, it cited CertainTeed’s allegations that: (a) Demey and Nichiha would be sharing and utilizing confidential information and trade secrets that originated, and are stored, in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania; and (b) Nichiha and Demey conducted negotiations while Demey was in Pennsylvania.
Finally, the district court answered the question of whether it should transfer the case to Georgia in the negative. After recognizing that a plaintiff’s choice of forum is a “paramount consideration,” the court remarked that CertainTeed’s key witnesses and documents are maintained on servers located in Valley Forge. The court also decided that the Eastern District of Pennsylvania is as convenient as the Northern District of Georgia for non-party witnesses. Thus, for the time being, the case between CertainTeed, Demey, and Nichiha will proceed on two fronts.