In Baird and Warner Residential Sales, Inc. v. Mazzone, No. 1-07-2179, the Illinois Appellate Court, First District reversed the circuit court’s determination that a restrictive covenant between Patricia Mazzone and her former employer, real estate broker Baird & Warner, was unenforceable as a matter of law. The ruling was issued in June as an unpublished order but was later published on August 15, 2008, upon the motion of Baird & Warner, which requested publication to provide guidance to the real estate industry where restrictive covenants are commonplace.

Baird & Warner sued Mazzone and her current employer, competing broker Midwest Realty Ventures, seeking to enjoin Mazzone for violating the restrictive covenant that prohibited her from soliciting Baird and Warner employees and independent contractors for one year following the end of her employment there. Although the circuit court initially granted a temporary restraining order and ordered expedited discovery, Mazzone and Midwest Realty quickly moved to dismiss on the ground that the non-solicitation agreement was unreasonable, overly broad, and thus enforceable because it sought to impose a “poison pill” whereby any competitor that hired any Baird & Warner manager was then precluded from hiring any of Baird & Warner’s thousands of employees and independent contractors. 


Baird & Warner opposed the motion, contending that, based on other language in the agreement, the covenant should be interpreted to apply only to the Baird & Warner office where Mazzone had worked.   But the circuit court dismissed the complaint and dissolved the TRO, concluding that the plain language of the agreement was not limited to the one office and declining to “blue pencil” the agreement because doing so would discourage precise drafting of agreements.


In an interlocutory appeal, the Appellate Court determined that even though the agreement was ambiguous as to whether it applied to one office or all of the company’s employees, “there is insufficient evidence to support a finding that the agreement was overly broad.” The court noted that under Illinois law, a court determining the reasonableness of a restrictive covenant should consider, among other factors, the hardship caused to the employee and the effect upon the general public. Here, the court concluded, there was no evidence on the face of the complaint to weigh those factors, and therefore it cannot be determined that the covenant is unreasonable as a matter of law. 


Based on this ruling, the court concluded that it need not address Baird & Warner’s alternative argument that the circuit court erred in refusing to exercise its “blue pencil” powers to modify the non-solicitation agreement to render it enforceable.