The recent California appellate decision, Cypress Semiconductor Corp. v. Superior Court, is instructive not just on the issue of when the statute of limitations begins to run in a trade secret matter, but also contains important language with respect to the obligations of the trade secret owner to notify good faith, third-party users of the alleged misappropriation of trade secrets.
In Cypress, Silvaco Data Systems had developed and licensed electronic design automation software (“EDA”). This software was used by Silvaco’s customers to design their own products. One of Silvaco’s EDA products was known as Smart Spice, and Silvaco maintained the source code for SmartSpice as a trade secret. In late 1998, a former Silvaco employee began working for Circuit Systems, Inc. (“CSI”) and incorporated the SmartSpice trade secrets into a CSI product known as DynaSpice. Silvaco first suspected the trade secrets misappropriation in 2000 and sued its former employee and CSI at that time. Silvaco did not directly notify or take any action against CSI customers who had licensed DynaSpice. In August 2003, Silvaco and CSI entered into a settlement agreement and a stipulated judgment. The judgment included an express finding that Silvaco’s trade secrets had been incorporated into DynaSpice. The judgment also required CSI to discontinue licensing DynaSpice, as well as notify DynaSpice license holders that the software contained Silvaco trade secrets and to encourage customers to discontinue using DynaSpice.
Cypress Semiconductor Corporation (“Cypress”), which was one of CSI’s customers, learned of the judgment in late August 2003. After judgment was entered, Silvaco also directly notified CSI customers that DynaSpice contained misappropriated trade secrets from Silvaco. Silvaco contacted Cypress in September 2003 and demanded that Cypress cease using Silvaco’s trade secrets. Silvaco claimed that despite this notice, Cypress continued to use the DynaSpice program, and thus continued to use Silvaco’s trade secrets. Silvaco brought suit against Cypress in May 2004.
The central issue decided by the California Sixth Appellate District in Cypress involved the statute of limitations of Silvaco’s claims against Cypress. However, the decision also contains important language regarding the obligations of a trade secret holder with respect to third parties who are using the holder’s trade secrets.
The Cypress court stated that “a cause of action for misappropriation against a third-party defendant accrues with the plaintiff’s discovery of that defendant’s misappropriation.” The Cypress court also noted that trade secret owners have an incentive under the California Uniform Trade Secrets Act (“CUTSA”) to put good-faith third parties on notice. According to Section 3426.1(d) of the CUTSA, “a trade secret loses its protected status if the owner does not undertake reasonable efforts to keep it secret.” Also, according to Section 3426.1(b)(2)(C) of the CUTSA, good faith acquirers of trade secrets who do not receive notice before materially relying upon the trade secrets may not be liable for misappropriation at all. Therefore, according to the Cypress decision, “the failure of the trade secret owner to take prompt action to protect its trade secrets or to alert good-faith acquirers to the existence of its trade secret claims can serve as a defense in the event the trade secret owner eventually decides to pursue a misappropriation claim against the third party.” (emphasis added).
A trade secret owner, therefore, must promptly investigate instances of possible misappropriation and seek to notify any third parties who may have acquired the owner’s trade secrets. Failure to act promptly, under the CUTSA and the Cypress decision, can give rise to statute of limitations defenses, as well as the possibility that the Court may find that the claimed trade secrets are no longer protected trade secrets at all.
The full text of the Court’s decision can be accessed here http://www.courtinfo.ca.gov/opinions/documents/H032114.PDF.